In addition to the three main vital systems (Central Nervous, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems), the effects of a test substance on other important physiological functions should be assessed on the basis of its known chemistry, PK/PD, or previously reported preclinical or clinical effects.

The selection and design of the tests to be performed is carried out in close collaboration with our clients. Below are a few examples.

Gastrointestinal system

> Intestinal and colonic transit
> Gastric emptying
> Gastric acid secretion
> Ulcerogenic activity after acute or subchronic treatment
> Isolated visceral smooth muscle
> Emesis induction: early and delayed emetic potential

Renal system

> Diuresis and urinary electrolyte excretion

   Main urinary parameters:

   - urinary volume (UV, ml/100g body weight)
   - potassium content (mmol/UV/100g body weight)
   - creatinine content (mmol/UV/100g body weight)
   - urinary pH
   - sodium content (mmol/UV/100g body weight)

> Bladder activity in anesthetized or conscious animals

> Isolated bladder tissue

Others studies

> Bleeding time,


> etc….