Dependence Potential

Identifying abuse and dependence liability is an important issue for CNS safety pharmacology.  Regulatory bodies in the US and Europe are in the process of developing standard guidelines, based on looking for similarities with known drugs of abuse.

Models available for evaluating drug dependence and liability include the following:

> Spontaneous withdrawal effects, including telemetry assessment

> Precipitated withdrawal (naloxone, flumazenil)

> Place preference

> Drug discrimination

> Self-administration

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Recent Porsolt publications: