Epilepsy

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Porsolt offers models in all areas of psychopharmacology, epilepsy, sleep-wake, and neurodegenerative disorders. We are uniquely placed to offer a full range of CNS efficacy and safety pharmacology assessments, from basic models and regulatory tests, through the evaluation of abuse and dependence liability and proconvulsant risk using EEG.

Epilepsy

ACUTE EPILEPSY MODELS

Generalized seizures:

> Electrical stimulation

Maximal Electroshock Test: tonic convulsions are induced by an electrical stimulation of high intensity.

Other test: Electroconvulsive Theshold Test (electrical stimulation of intermediate intensity)

> Chemical substance

Pentylenetetrazol seizures test: Pentylenetetrazol administered subcutaneously, induces clonic and tonic convulsions in the mouse or in the rat.

Other substances can be used to induce convulsions (bicuculline, strychnine or picrotoxin).

MAXIMAL ELECTROSHOCK Carbamazepine Mouse/Rat p.o. yes
Diazepam Mouse p.o., i.p. yes
Lamotrigine Rat p.o. yes
Valproate Rat i.p. yes
ELECTROCONVULSIVE SHOCK THRESHOLD Diazepam Mouse/Rat p.o., i.p. yes
Valproate Rat i.p. yes
PENTYLENETETRAZOL-INDUCED CONVULSIONS Diazepam Mouse/Rat p.o., i.p. yes
Valproate Rat i.p. yes
TEST REFERENCE SPECIES ROUTE EFFECT

Partial seizures:

> Electrical stimulation

6-Hz Psychomotor Test: electrical stimulation induces seizures characterized by forelimb clonus and Straub tail in the mouse .

CHRONIC EPILEPSY MODELS

Generalized seizures:

> Genetic animal model

DBA/2 mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures and exibit wild running followed by clonic and tonic convulsions when exposed to highintensity sound.

Partial seizures:

> Electrical stimulation

Electrical Amygdala Kindling test:  partial seizures with secondary generalization are induced by repeated electrical stimulation in a limbic region (amygdala for example).

AUDIOGENIC SEIZURE Mouse Carbamazepine p.o. yes
Mouse Diazepam p.o., i.p. yes
Mouse Lamotrigine p.o. yes
Rat Valproate i.p. yes
ELECTRICAL AMYGDALA KINDLING Rat Carbamazepine p.o. yes
Rat Diazepam p.o. yes
Mouse Valproate i.p. yes
TEST SPECIES REFERENCE ROUTE EFFECT

> Parameters measured
     - Seizure score based on the Racine’s scale.
     - Afterdischarge duration evaluated by EEG recording.